Charles I to impose the Anglican Prayer Book and enforce rule by bishops in Scotland, the population of which was predominantly Presbyterian. In 1638 the Scots vowed, in the national covenant, to restore Presbyterianism and an Assembly of the Scottish Church formally ended rule by bishops.
Charles led an English army into Scotland in 1639, but his own military weakness forced him to accept the Treaty of Berwick recognizing Scottish demands. In 1640, Charles called the short parliament to raise money for a new war. Although parliament refused to grant him the funds, he challenged the Scots anyway. They promptly invaded and occupied much of Northern England. By the Treaty of Ripon Charles agreed that the Scottish Army would remain on English soil and receive payments until a final peace was concluded. This is a coin of that time.