Iran (historically known as Persia until 1931 AD) is one of the world’s most ancient and resilient nations. Strategically astride the lower land gate to Asia, it has been conqueror and conquered, sovereign nation and vassal state, ever emerging from its periods of glory or travail with its culture and political individuality intact.
Iran was a powerful empire under Cyrus the Great, it’s borders extending from the Indus to the Nile. It has also been conquered by the predatory empires of antique and recent times-Assyrian, Medean Macedonian, Seljuq, Yurk., mongol-and more recently been coveted by Russia, the Third Reich and Great Britain. Revolts against the absolute power of the Persian Shahs resulted in the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in 1906.