The Chihli, or Zhili, province of China is a place of historic events. It is the site where the “Great Wall of China” begins; the Yellow River empties into it’s gulf; and it was the region that experienced some of the most momentous battles of the Boxer Rebellion. It developed as the economic heartland of ancient China in the 2nd century BC.
After the 10th century AD, northern sections fell, successively, under the control of non-Chinese Chadian, Liao, and Mongol empires until restored to Chinese administration in 1368 at the start of the Ming Dynasty. From 1421 until 1912, and again after 1949, Beijing served as the national capital, to the economic benefit of the surrounding areas. The province was called Chihli by the Manchus (1644-1912) and retained this name until 1928.